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  4. Long March - HISTORY

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Shaoshan was a typical farming village where many people struggled with poverty and hunger. Mao left his hometown as a teenager and as far as anyone knows only returned twice. At the age of 16, he went to Changsa, near Shaoshan, to attend secondary school. He was trained in Confucian classics and worked as an accountant in his father's business while in school. Not yet a radical he wrote that: "I considered the emperor as well as most officials to be honest, good and clever men.

His favorite novel reportedly was The Water Margin , an epic story about a group of insurgents who lived during the Song dynasty. Mao's father was a "relatively rich peasant" who as a young man had his land taken away and was forced to serve in the army to pay off some large debts. After being released from the army he worked and saved enough money to buy back his land.

He became a "rich peasant" by selling surplus rice and buying up rice from poor farmers and selling it a higher price to rice merchants. When Mao was a teenager, his father made a killing by village standards by buying up mortgages from poor peasants and making a profit on the interest the peasants paid him. Mao was close to his mother. She studied Buddhism and had bound feet.

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He regarded his father as a disciplinarian whom he once said, "I learned to hate. Mao reportedly told his father to go to hell but then allowed him to save face by saying, "Confucius says elders must be kind and affectionate to the young.

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However I will kowtow on one knee if you promise not beat me. Mao's 1st wife Yao Ka in When Mao was a young boy a severe famine hit the Hunan province and the Manchu governor was killed in a food riot. Mao wrote he "felt that there with the rebels were ordinary people like my own family and I deeply resented the injustice in the treatment given to them. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in , Mao joined the Chinese army but quit six months later.

Between and , Mao attended the Hunan No.

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In Changsa, Mao was exposed to the revolutionary ideas preached by Sun Yat-sen, heard about the Canton and Wuhan uprisings and read about socialism in Russia in the newspapers. Mao started a night school for farmers in Describing his early years in Changsa, Mao wrote, "At this time my mind was a curious mixture of ideas of liberalism, democratic reformism and utopia socialism In Mao worked as an assistant to the chief librarian of the University of Beijing, where he first began to study Marxism seriously and where he met with many of the founders of the Communist Party. When Mao returned to Changsa, he wrote, "I became more and more convinced that only mass political power, secured through mass action, could guarantee the realization of dynamic reforms.

In the s Mao founded the Cultural Book Society and its affiliated bookstore. With the aim of reforming academic studies and introducing new Chinese and foreign publications.

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In he began organizing workers and calling himself a Marxist. He recruited new members for the Communist Party with an ad in the local Changsa newspaper "inviting young men interested in patriotic work to make contact with me. In he organized the Hunan provincial branch of the Communist Party and set up labor and student unions.

Long March - HISTORY

His revolutionary activities among peasant angered landlords in Hunan and Mao was forced to flee to Canton, where the Kuomintang and Communists held power as allies. The Red Army was established in , and after a series of uprisings and internal political struggles, the CCP announced the establishment in of the Chinese Soviet Republic under the chairmanship of Mao in Jiangxi Province in south-central China.

Mao joined the KMT in the s when the Nationalists adopted policy of tolerance by befriending the Soviet Union and the Chinese communists in a bid to unite the war-torn country. Mao's earliest surviving essay, written when he was 19, championed the pragmatic but ruthless policies of Shang Yang, a 4th century B. Visitors to rural areas saw peasant wives toiling around the clock: cooking, mending clothes and feeding livestock after finishing a day of work in the fields.

Researchers also observed that after marriage factory women often experienced slower career advancement than men as they became saddled with domestic responsibilities that left them with little time to learn new skills and take on extra work, both prerequisites for promotion.

State services that promised to ease their burden, like public child care centers, were in reality few and far between.

During her field study in China in s, Margery Wolf, who was an anthropology professor at University of Iowa, was surprised by how effusive Chinese women were about the miracle of female emancipation in the very presence of their continued oppression. The state rolled out propaganda campaigns aimed at not only enlisting women in the work force but also shaping their self-perception.

For women in the workplace to adhere to this narrowly defined acceptable female image meant to see, understand and speak about their life not as it was, but as what it ought to be according to the party ideal. She does not mention the arduous work of managing a household and raising three children amid tumultuous revolutionary campaigns. Two of the biggest leading historians of Chinese politics at the time included Lucien Bianco and Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong lived from to in which a part of his life was spent under the rule of a Feudalist system before reforming the country into a red state. Lucien Bianco was born in and most of his life still consists of living under a communist government. Both authors offer distinctive different answers for what ultimately caused communism. Document 8. In this document, from personal perspective, Mao argued the importance of the peasant issues, then described how the peasant associations became organized, how the peasants fought with the local tyrants and gentry, and how they became powerful in rural areas.

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A fundamental principle of Maoism is peasant revolt and following the mass line which emphasises and embodies the perspective of the peasantry. Mao instituted three. Global history Pd 7.

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