However, the six nuns sailed from Ireland on the 6th August , in response to Bishop Thomas Grimley's appeal to Cabra for teachers - apparently for education in general, not only for deaf children. In the three years after their arrival, three schools were opened: St. Mary's School, St. It is hardly plausible that the nuns stepped off the ship and immediately began teaching deaf South Africans, nor that the first school to be opened was the one for deaf children. The Volta Bureau , pp. Barnes , p. The Cape census report, compiled , stated that, "In Cape Town, there is a small school for the Deaf and Dumb, under the care of the Nuns of the Sisterhood of St.
Dominic, where 14 European and 16 coloured children are taught. This school has, it is stated, existed in a small way for the past 30 years. The census data for the Cape Town Dominican school pupils is useful. Arthur Blaxall , p. He or she can probably at least be named, if school, church or government records are investigated. Deaf children at any of these schools were very seldom named in published articles.
Janice Breitwieser had one small black girl named as 'Lily', in a photo caption from the Wittebome school. Breitwieser, an American teacher who spent two years at Wittebome, was amazed at the new construction she saw opened on 3 March However, a news item "In Cairo" noted "the establishment of a school for the deaf in Cairo, where it has for three years had a prosperous existence.
Another item in noted that Egypt had then a school for about twenty children at Cairo, a government school "being launched at Alexandria", and a private school run by "a Greek lady, Madame Semely Tsotsou", who was also responsible for training 15 Egyptian teachers "The Deaf in Egypt", One small deaf girl, Athanassia Boubouly, is pictured there with her teacher.
Early information on the school at Algiers has also not been readily available. A brief note in reported the installation of M. Ayrole in place of the retiring principal M. Rolland Lamarque, Mr Blaxall. Later, when Helen Keller visited South Africa in , Blaxall was again involved with local arrangements across the country. He described the function at the community hall, Duncan Village, East London, where the Tembu chief's wife presented a gift to the world-famous deaf-blind woman. As was her custom, Keller "found the shoulders of the donor, leaning forward to kiss her on one cheek and then on the other.
The Africans roared their delight. Repeatedly through the tour, Blaxall , p. In , Edna Spencer Heffner, an American experienced in teaching the deaf but who was teaching English in an ordinary secondary school in Ethiopia, started a lip-reading club for hard of hearing pupils.
She reported that of the four regular attenders, all had improved their grades, and two became proficient Heffner, See also Note . At the village and semi-nomadic level in north eastern Niger, the anthropologist Susan Rasmussen , pp. He attended neither Koranic nor secular school. People used sign language to communicate, although he also read lips.
This boy went on errands and brought garden produce back for different related families.
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He was not mistreated, but adults were not particularly affectionate toward him. LIII, final chapter trans. These provisos, while themselves somewhat ambiguous, are important in upgrading their status. Sorin-Barreteau , I: notes that in Mali, in earlier times, there was no possibility of civil litigation against a deaf person because the deaf were considered to lack sufficient understanding of right and wrong , and this generated mistrust in the hearing population.
Obviously, some deaf people who understood the situation well enough could profit from being 'above the law'. In some aspects of law, deaf people have commonly been linked with those having a mental disability.
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For example, British law prevailing in Ghana and Nigeria in colonial times stated that "every man residing within the district of the Supreme Court, not being a lunatic or deaf, may be required to serve on a jury" Asmis, , p. Responses suggest a very slow movement toward recognition of the value of deaf persons in legal systems. Gane was drafted into an impromptu military team that developed radar protection at various African sites in the early s.
A colleague named Hewitt mentioned that "Gane was deaf, stuttered badly and had had no military training at all. He was the only person who could set it up but when it was right it was very good indeed. Gane, who was sharing a tent with a man called Hodges, thought the noise was caused by Hodges swatting flies.
While hardly an elegant or precise indicator, this sort of anecdotal evidence remains, through most centuries, the primary means of confirming that severe loss of hearing was present. Later in life he devoted his energies to research intending to harmonise various branches of South African SL, and to teaching hearing people to sign. Gallaudet Deaf Biographies Index listing him as "Ebstain" notes that he was "Active in salons of deaf artists".
The lists are not reproduced here because these people cannot readily be contacted. They might be happy to have their names listed on a website; but one cannot be sure without asking them. Schmaling pp. Much earlier in her studies, Sorin-Barreteau , pp.
Schmaling , p. In Kano State, "Many hearing people, old and young alike, are able to converse with the deaf freely and effectively through signs or sign language, at least on a basic level". Schmaling cites other skilled European observers with similar views pp. Experiences of the deaf writer Florence Oteng , seem, however, to offer a different picture, from southern Ghana.
Some conflict of descriptions certainly reflects the very varied situations and operative possibilities within different parts of Africa's larger countries. They were visiting Aloysius ["Aloy"] N'Jok Bibium, a deaf Cameroonian born in , who had secondary education in UK and later studied at Gallaudet, returning eventually in the mids to work for the education and empowerment of deaf people in Cameroon. The two visitors were in culture shock, and their recorded impressions are utterly naive; yet these reactions do illustrate the gulfs separating the living standard, availability of services, and supply of 'basics' such as water, food and electricity, between the capital city of Cameroon and any town of North America or Western Europe.
The 'empowerment' of deaf people in rural Cameroon, or almost any part of rural Africa, lies on the far side of a still vaster gulf, not only of economic resources, but of philosophies and of understanding what might be appropriate goals in the terms and concepts of the people themselves. Andrew] Foster and provided an education", and who also "established and ran schools for the deaf overseas" before obtaining migrating to America and obtaining his doctorate at New Mexico SU.
Library resources on the ground and on the web provided much useful information; among them Oxford, Gallaudet and Birmingham Universities were prominent. Some paragraphs of the original printed paper first appeared in Deaf History International Newsletter , No. In: Partnership between Deaf People and Professionals. Proceedings of a Conference, Rabat, Malta. Valletta: Ministry for Social Policy. Zeitschrift Behinderung und Dritte Welt 15 1 Scriptores Aethiopici, tome Louvain: Secretariat du Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium.
History in Africa 2: Royal African Society , 12 No. Sancti Aureli Augustini Opera, Sect. I, Part IV. Vienna: Hoelder-Pichler-Tempsky. VI, Part IV. Mishkat al-masabih , trans. J Robson, reprint Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf. Reel 7, "Africa Through Western Eyes. Marlborough: Adam Matthew Publications. In: National College of Teachers of the Deaf.
Deaf people | UCL UCL Ear Institute & Action on Hearing Loss Libraries
Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference , Brighton: Gillett. Dictionary of South African Biography. Cape Town: Tafelberg Uitgewers. Traduction analytique IV. Arabica 8: New York: Negro Univ.
Neither-Nor : A Young Australian's Experience with Deafness
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Ideas and practices concerning disability and rehabilitation in a Shona ward. Leiden: African Studies Centre. CW Newbury. ED Sedding. London: SPCK. Zimbabwe J. Educational Research 7: Educafrica Special issue In: Missions to the Niger, Vol. EW Bovill, reprint In: Dictionary of South African Biography. Sign Language Studies Dove kinderen in Namibia. Utrecht: Unitwin Network for Southern Africa.
Amsterdam, Jacob van Meurs. London: Commonwealth Society for the Deaf. History in Africa 1: Volta Review Lightbearer 21, p. See Endnote 13, above.